Choa Chu Kang Waterworks
Choa Chu Kang Waterworks (CCKWW) is the second largest waterworks in Singapore and has a treatment capacity of 80 million gallons per day (364 MLD). Built in 1975, the plant has undergone several rounds of upgrading to enhance the treatment processes. The most recent completed upgrading was in 2019 with the addition of ceramic membrane filtration, ozone disinfection and biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration. At 40 MGD (or 182 MLD), the ceramic membrane treatment facility is the largest in the world and uses pre-ozonated feed water which helps to reduce fouling on the surface of the membranes and allows for higher membrane flux and recovery. The ozone and BAC filtration removes organic carbon from the treated water, making it biologically stable. When combined together, these advanced processes help to prepare the plant for more challenging raw water quality that are anticipated with climate change.
The plant will undergo reconstruction and be transformed into a state-of-the art water treatment facility with the latest water treatment technologies and smart capabilities to enhance its operations, maintenance, safety and security when completed in 2026. The plant will be upgraded with new water treatment technologies and equipment such as high rate clarifiers, advanced membrane filtration system and highly automated chemical preparation/dosing system, replacing the existing equipment and buildings constructed before 1981. The earlier upgraded ceramic membranes and ozonation-biological activated carbon filtration system will not be affected by the reconstruction.